Skip to main content

Crappie Science

Crappie Science

Crappies for the most part remain abundant in the face of sustained fishing pressure from lots of avid anglers. And while we might all like to catch bigger crappies, most are eating-size, so it's not a critical concern. Moreover, attempts to improve the size structure of crappie populations with regulations have met with little success. Crappie spawning and recruitment have long been perplexing as well, but as long as they're not scarce, we tend to let nature take its course.

Crappie Biology

Early in the last century, specialists in fish behavior mapped out the basic life history of our two crappie species, noting differences in behavior in reservoirs and shallow lakes, and among waterways at various latitudes. Descriptions of spawning behavior and prey preferences also were conducted, establishing the baseline of information we rely on when planning fishing strategies. Yet, new findings continue.

Spawning Schedule: It all starts with the spawn and readers near southern waters can look for top action this month. But did you know that crappies have been known to switch-hit and spawn in fall?

Over the years, we'd heard reports of bass and crappies spawning in fall, but this had never been scientifically documented until biologists with the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission found small juvenile crappies in their fall sampling at Orange Lake. Curious about their origin, they collected more samples and aged the young fish by looking at the daily growth rings on their otoliths.

The 2- and 3-inch crappies they collected in December had hatched between the first and fourth week of October. No good explanation of this phenomenon has been forthcoming, though rising water levels in fall were considered a possible trigger.

Spawning-Site Fidelity: Movement studies have documented fish of several species returning to the same area to spawn year after year. Where fish use the same spawning area each year, protecting that habitat is critical to keep populations healthy.

Toward this end, Nebraska researchers examined whether crappies display spawning-site fidelity at Sherman Reservoir, a 2,850-acre Nebraska irrigation impoundment known for good fishing. They captured crappies in trap nets from 5 coves in May and marked them with color-coded tags over several years.

Adult crappies demonstrated cove fidelity within and among spawning seasons. Over 80 percent of tagged fish were captured in the same cove during the same spawning season, and over 70 percent were recaptured in subsequent years in the same cove. The researchers concluded that crappies sought specific coves in which to spawn, even when similar coves and substrates were available nearby.

Also of concern for spawning success is a report from the Minnesota DNR about effects of lakeshore development on nesting by black crappie and largemouth bass. On three lakes, biologists noted nest locations and proximity to docks and developed shorelines as well as canopy cover and aquatic vegetation.

Crappies were more likely to nest along undeveloped shorelines with canopy cover and aquatic vegetation. Nests along developed banks were deeper than those found on undeveloped shorelines. Loss of emergent vegetation, which often occurs with development, could cause crappies to spawn in concentrated areas containing preferred habitat. This could lead to weather-induced spawning failure if locations weren't protected from waves or wind, or could lead to overharvest of spawning fish by anglers. Results showed crappies were more vulnerable than bass to shoreline development.


Hybrid Crappies: Investigations in reservoirs containing both black and white crappies have found high incidence of hybridization. For example, over half the fish collected in Douglas Reservoir, Tennessee, were hybrids, as were 21 to 29 percent of fish in Lake Weiss, Alabama.

Hybridization in natural lakes hadn't been examined until age-growth studies in Minnesota found some fish growing unusually fast. Hybrid vigor, the tendency of first-generation hybrids to grow very fast, was suspected in these lakes in the southern part of the state where the two species coexist.

Researchers collected fish from 22 lakes and, using DNA testing, found hybrids in 20 of them. Minnesota DNR biologists had been calling most of these F1 hybrids black crappies, skewing growth rate evaluation Only the first generation showed hybrid vigor, a common situation with animal crosses.


Length Limits: Anglers often rue the good old days when big slabs reportedly were more abundant. For the past 25 years, fishery managers have looked at ways to increase numbers of large crappie. After regulations seemed rather successful in Missouri in the mid-1980s, other jurisdictions evaluated them.

The latest evaluation comes from Minnesota, where anglers and biologists felt length limits might have benefits, due to lower natural mortality and increased longevity of crappies there. On the other hand, slow growth of Minnesota fish might nullify any benefits.

Researchers with the Minnesota DNR chose 4 study lakes, where 9-, 10-, and 11-inch minimums were imposed, and sampled other lakes with no special regulations (only the statewide 10-fish bag limit) for comparison. Although data from 15 years were evaluated, improvement was noted in only one case.

In a couple lakes, illegal harvest could have negated any benefits of the regulations. But at the lake where no illegal harvest was detected, size structure did not improve. Nearby reference lakes continued to produce better fishing.

Water Level Management: Crappies build nests in shallow bays and male fish guard eggs and fry, so low water levels might hurt recruitment, the process of refilling the ranks of catchable fish. Water level rises prior to the spawn may be beneficial, flooding shoreline cover and adding nutrients that boost zooplankton that then feeds larval crappies.

Researchers at Auburn University have conducted several investigations of hydrological effects on recruitment of black and white crappies in Alabama reservoirs. The relationships were complicated but in impoundments with short retention times (fast flows through the reservoir), wet winters that raised water levels and increased discharge rates through mid-April encouraged strong year-classes, although there were exceptions.

Research on Ohio reservoirs suggested, in contrast, that fertility was most closely related to crappie recruitment. More fertile lakes tended to produce more crappies. There didn't seem to be a relationship with water levels, although fluctuations were less than in Alabama impoundments and retention times were longer, making these waters function more like natural lakes.

So crappies remain somewhat inscrutable for fishery managers, as well as for anglers planning a spring outing. Good conditions — slowly rising and warming water, mild weather, and light wind — mean lots of fish and some slabs. But drop the temperature, throw in a northwest wind, and lower water levels and you scratch all day for a handful of fish.

Make the most of good bites, releasing fish not needed for a dinner or two and particularly the largest fish. Each angler can contribute to keeping populations strong by selective harvest, urging biologically based regulations, and working to maintain optimal habitat in natural and less natural waters.

Recruitment Puzzle

Management Notes — Crappies are notorious for inconsistent year-class strength. Some lakes and reservoirs produce strong year-classes only every 3 to 4 years. As these crappies grow to catchable size, fishing is temporarily great until natural mortality and harvest take their toll, then fishing declines. Some waters have more consistent annual production of fewer crappies, while others regularly produce many young leading to high-density slow-growing populations.

Year-class strength is set by reproductive success and recruitment, the process by which fish are added to the catchable population. Spawning success in crappies is tied to habitat quality, as well as environmental conditions during the spawn and egg development, such as water level and weather.

Once crappies hatch, several factors affect survival during the first year of life, such as availability of food for the young, predation, temperature and wind, and hydrological conditions. High water levels, high reservoir discharge, reservoir productivity, predator density, and zooplankton abundance have been correlated to survival of young crappies. Recruitment also has been shown to be related to spawning stock size in some instances.

Highly variable year-class strength is challenging to fishery managers because these types of populations are unpredictable and generally don't respond well to harvest regulations. However, some control over crappie populations has been obtained through manipulating water level, cover, predator density, and by imposing length and creel limits. Relationships between recruitment and spawning stock size suggest that regulations may improve recruitment in fisheries where low numbers of spawners limit production.

Rob Neumann

Size Affects Catchability

Anglers are best at catching middle-size crappies, according to a tagging study in 3 states by researchers at Mississippi State University.* Dr. Steve Miranda and Brian Dorr tagged about 3,000 black crappies and a similar number of whites, ranging from 8 to 16 inches, in 5 bodies of water.

Tag returns from anglers showed the lowest catch rate for small fish of both species, gradually increasing from 8 to 12 inches, with catchability declining for the biggest crappies. Crappies from 10 to 13 inches were most likely to be caught. Small white crappies were particularly elusive and the largest black crappies also evaded anglers. Fishing tackle and method, and differences in behavior and habitat among different sizes apparently affected catch rates.

For fishery managers, the results provide information for setting length limits. To cut harvest substantially, a protected slot-length limit of 10 to 13 inches should be effective, while a length limit of 10 inches may be ineffective, at least in the region studied.

*Miranda, L. E., and B. S. Dorr. 2000. Size selectivity of ­crappie angling. N. Am. J. Fish. Mngt. 20:706-710.

6 Arc of Slabs, Northeast Mississippi

Like the Bordeaux region grows world-class wine grapes, the Arc of Slabs is famous for producing giant crappies. Grenada, Sardis, Enid, and Arkabutla — it's a tossup which of these reservoirs might be best for giant white crappies during March and April. Jigging in brush and spider-rigging are the best bets. Wading, too, at times. Contact: Guide John Woods, 731/334-9669; Guide John Harrison, 662/983-5999.

2 Lake Erie, Ohio

The best opportunities are between Port Clinton and Vermilion, says Ohio fishery biologist Travis Hartman. Many marinas and backwaters have excellent crappie fishing in the spring, peaking in late April to early May, and occasionally in the fall. Good open-water spots are East and West harbors and Sandusky Bay. Check connected rivers, too. Lots of fish to 12 inches, with 14-inchers not uncommon, Hartman says. Craig Lewis of Erie Outfitters says Lake Erie is a surprisingly overlooked crappie fishery, considering the numbers of fish caught, up to 18 inches, as big as any in the state. Contact: Erie Outfitters, 440/949-8934; Ohio DNR,

4 Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee

Guide Billy Blakley says the crappie forecast for the 'Earthquake Lake ' is excellent for 2013, with average fish running 1 to 11„4 pounds and catches up to 23„4 pounds. The lake contains both black and white crappies. From March through May, spider-rig and jig around underwater wood, and jig around exposed cypress stumps. The bite picks up again in the fall. Top-notch lodging and food at Blue Bank Resort. Contact: Guide Billy Blakley at Blue Bank Resort 877/258-3226,

7 Weiss Lake, Alabama

The crappie outlook is very good for 2013, reports Alabama district fisheries supervisor Dan Catchings. Samples indicate one, and possibly two, strong year-classes of crappies in 2010 and 2011. Expect good numbers of harvestable-size fish from the 2010 spawn this spring, with the 2011 year-class contributing to the fishing in mid- to late 2013. Fishing picks up in February as crappies move shallow. March through early May is best, with April being the peak. Contact: Guide Richard Green, 859/983-0673, or book through Little River Marina and Lodge (256/779-6461); Guide Mark Collins,, 256/779-3387.

8 Kentucky Lake, Kentucky / Tennessee

Anglers look forward to the 'Crappie Capital ' living up to its name in 2013, says guide Steve ­McCadams. Expect numbers of quality fish with a shot at slabs over 2 pounds. While action during the spawn in late March into April is outstanding, don't overlook May and June, when stable lake levels and weather patterns find crappies concentrating around fish attractors at midrange depths, he says. Contact: Guide Steve ­McCadams,

9 Kerr (Buggs Island) Reservoir, Virginia/North Carolina

Numbers of crappies from 1 to 13„4 pounds with a chance for 2- to 3-pounders. Once the spider-rigging bite wanes in shallower creek channels by April, action turns to jigging deeper brushpiles. Contact: Guide Bud Haynes, 434/374-0308; Guide Keith Wray, 434/635-0207; Bobcats Bait and Tackle, 434/374-8381.

3 Lake Eufaula, Oklahoma

This shallow reservoir boasts numbers of crappies in the 2- to 3-pound range, with 37-fish limits common. In spring, the action is shallow, doodlesocking flooded buckbrush in high water, or working rocky banks and brush cover in low water, says guide Todd Huckabee. Crappies move to deeper brush later in spring. Contact: Guide Todd Huckabee,; Guide Barry Morrow,; Blue Heron Bait and Tackle, 918/334-5528.

5 Lake Fork, Texas

Numbers of slabs from 11„4 to 21„2 pounds tend to get overlooked in this lake famous for lunker bass. Mid-May through June is guide Terri Moon's favorite time for crappies, when the fish head to brushpiles and bridge abutments in 20 to 24 feet of water. Pitching Fork Tackle's Live Baby Shads on 1/16-ounce jigs is a top option. Ivan Martin and Rick Loomis also guide clients to Fork's crappies in November and December, when fish are on points and in deeper brush. Contact: Guide Terri Moon, 903/383-7773; Guide Ivan Martin, 918/260-7743; Guide Rick Loomis,; Lake Fork Marina for lodging, food, and tackle,

1 Lake of the Woods, Ontario

The Woods is top-notch for black crappies to 16 inches, says In-Fisherman contributor Jeff Gustafson. Many crappies on this massive water have never seen lures, so once you find them, the numbers and quality are second to none, he says. Action starts in mid-May, with fish moving to shallow areas with cover. After spawning in early June, target them on weedflats in 6 to 10 feet of water. Float-and-jig combinations excel. Also try small suspending jerkbaits and swimming marabou jigs. Contact: Guide Dave Bennett,, 807/466-2140; Guide Jamie Bruce,, 807/466-7134.

10 St. Johns River, Florida

The stretch of the St. Johns River south of Lake George offers outstanding fishing. Crappies from 2 to 3 pounds are caught regularly, with average catches well over a pound. This was the scene of an In-Fisherman television episode that airs this spring. Weedflats hold fish that can't resist tubes fished under a float. Or troll channel edges using jigs or minnows. Contact: Lodging at Castaways on the River, 352/759-4522,; Guide Steve Niemoeller, 386/846-2861,

GET THE NEWSLETTER Join the List and Never Miss a Thing.

Recommended Articles

Recent Videos

Check out this classic catfish video from the early days of In-Fisherman! Watch Al Lindner, Ottis

In-Fisherman Classics: Bluegill Basics

Check out this classic catfish video from the early days of In-Fisherman! Watch Al Lindner, Ottis

In-Fisherman Classics: European Speed Fishing for Panfish

Check out this classic catfish video from the early days of In-Fisherman! Watch Al Lindner, Ottis

In-Fisherman Classics: Location Secrets for Fall Crappies

Check out this classic catfish video from the early days of In-Fisherman! Watch Al Lindner, Ottis

In-Fisherman Classics: Take a Kid Fishing

Check out this classic catfish video from the early days of In-Fisherman! Watch Al Lindner, Ottis

In-Fisherman Classics: Classic Crappie Presentations

Check out this classic catfish video from the early days of In-Fisherman! Watch Al Lindner, Ottis

In-Fisherman Classics: Fall Panfish Patterns

Check out this classic catfish video from the early days of In-Fisherman! Watch Al Lindner, Ottis

In-Fisherman Classic: Summertime Bluegills

Check out this classic catfish video from the early days of In-Fisherman! Watch Al Lindner, Ottis

Angler and Rescuers Reunite After One-In-A-Million Offshore Epic

Check out this classic catfish video from the early days of In-Fisherman! Watch Al Lindner, Ottis

World-Class Channel Cats below the Selkirk Dam in Manitoba with Blackwater Cats

Check out this classic catfish video from the early days of In-Fisherman! Watch Al Lindner, Ottis

Controlled Drifting for GIANT Blue Cats with Phil King

Check out this classic catfish video from the early days of In-Fisherman! Watch Al Lindner, Ottis

3 SIMPLE and EASY Catfish Rigging Tips with Captain Ross Robertson

Check out this classic catfish video from the early days of In-Fisherman! Watch Al Lindner, Ottis


In-Fisherman Magazine Covers Print and Tablet Versions

GET THE MAGAZINE Subscribe & Save

Digital Now Included!


Give a Gift   |   Subscriber Services


Buy Digital Single Issues

Magazine App Logo

Don't miss an issue.
Buy single digital issue for your phone or tablet.

Buy Single Digital Issue on the In-Fisherman App

Other Magazines

See All Other Magazines

Special Interest Magazines

See All Special Interest Magazines

GET THE NEWSLETTER Join the List and Never Miss a Thing.

Get the top In-Fisherman stories delivered right to your inbox.

Phone Icon

Get Digital Access.

All In-Fisherman subscribers now have digital access to their magazine content. This means you have the option to read your magazine on most popular phones and tablets.

To get started, click the link below to visit and learn how to access your digital magazine.

Get Digital Access

Not a Subscriber?
Subscribe Now

Enjoying What You're Reading?

Get a Full Year
of Guns & Ammo
& Digital Access.

Offer only for new subscribers.

Subscribe Now

Never Miss a Thing.

Get the Newsletter

Get the top In-Fisherman stories delivered right to your inbox.

By signing up, I acknowledge that my email address is valid, and have read and accept the Terms of Use